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viernes, abril 29, 2005

10.9.8.7.6.5.4.3.2.1 no shortcuts here 

THIS ARE ALL (MOSTLY) DIRECT QUOTES FROM:

MYERS 2004 Exploring Social Psychology 3rdEd. McGraw:NY.
with a few summaries and comments made by me.



Module 6 The Fundamental Attribution Error

..how much are we affected by our social environment.

.. depends on the situation (as well as on what we bring to the situation).

When explaining someone’s behavior, we underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the extent to which it reflects the individual’s traits and attitudes.

This discounting of the situation, … the fundamental attribution error….

We tend to presume that others are the way they act.

When referring to ourselves, we typically use verbs that describe our actions and reactions…. Referring to someone else, we more often describe what that person is…
(I do, they are)

Why do we tend to underestimate the situational determinants of others’ behavior but not of our own?

Perspective and Situational Awareness
Differing Perspectives
Attribution theorists point out that our perspective differs when we observe others than when we act… When we act, the environment commands our attention. When we watch another person act, that person occupies the center of our attention and the situation becomes relatively invisible. (figure ground analogy…. So the person seems to cause whatever happens….. what if we could see ourselves as others see us and if we saw the world through their eyes?

Perspectives Change with Time
The less opportunity we have to observe people’s behavior in context, the more we attribute to their personalities.

Similarly, people’s impressions of someone they have heard about from a friend are typically more extreme than their friend’s firsthand impressions… (hmm, the power of heresay?)

Cultural Differences..
Cultures also influence the attribution error… A Western worldview predisposes people to assume that people, not situations, cause events. … The assumption here is that, with the right disposition and attitude, anyone can surmount almost any problem: You get what you deserve and deserve what you get.

How Fundamental Is The Fundamental Attribution Error?
It is sobering to think that you and I can know about a social process that distorts our thinking and still be susceptible to it.

French investigators Jean-Leon Beauvois and Nicole Dubois (1988) report that “relatively privileged middle-class people are more likely than less-advantaged people to assume that people’s behaviors have internal explanations. (Those who have made it tend to assume that you get what you deserve.)

…. Had I viewed these interactions through their eyes instead of my own, I might have come to different conclusions…

So what?

The contextual nature of experience (and hence behavior) is supported again in this topic of attribution and the fundamental error found in it. Awareness of the lenses used to observe, describe, explain and predict behavior renders distinct possibilities for each same situation. Taken from the observer, situations are explained different from the observed. Likewise, awareness of situational variations are influenced and influential to the observation.. hence the cultural and socioeconomic consideration in explaining situations.

As social scientists we need to acknowledge the scenario in which behavior is focused on and armed with the knowledge available in the field to explain as thoroughly as possible phenomena making adjustments for the biases and inaccuracies presented here as in the case of attribution error. So we must take a harder look at behavior to incorporate situational factors impinging on the observer as well as on the observed.



Module 7 The Powers and Perils of Intuition

What are our powers of intuition—of immediately knowing something without reasoning of analysis? … and trusting the force within.

… “ ‘Most of a person’s everyday life is determined not by their conscious intentions and deliberate choices but by mental processes that are put into motion by features of the environment and that operate outside of conscious awareness and guidance.’” (That the unconscious controls our behavior? That we go on automatic and “assign routine affairs” to the unconscious while consciously attending to important and novel issues.)

We Overestimate The Accuracy Of Our Judgments.
As we construe our past and future we construe different selves. Overconfidence phenomenon… incompetence feeds overconfidence. It takes competence to recognize what competence is.

What produces overconfidence? Why doesn’t experience lead us to a more realistic self-appraisal?

1. people tend to recall their mistaken judgments as times when they were almost right;

2. People also tend not to seek information that might disprove what they believe.

We are eager to verify our beliefs but less inclined to seek evidence that might disprove them. We call this phenomenon the confirmation bias.

Remedies for Overconfidence.

Confidence and competence need not coincide.
Two techniques have successfully reduced the overconfidence bias. One is prompt feedback… (the other) to get people to think of one good reason why their judgments might be wrong: Force them to consider disconfirming information. (include in proposals) reasons why they might not work.

Overconfidence can cost us, but realistic self-confidence is adaptive.
So what?

Again here we are searching for accuracy in our descriptions and predictions. The extent to which intuition is likened to the unconscious is questionable…unless that realm includes the collective unconscious of human nature. If we accept the definition of intuition offered here of knowing without reasoning, we might incur in the attribution error of intuition as in the mind and not as a collective locale beyond it. And then, how would that process be operationally defined and measured?


From instructor’s manual:
Overconfident social judgments.
Milojkovic and Ross also reported that when people were 90 to 100 percent confident, they were not more correct than when they were only 50 to 65 percent confident.

The bias to verify rather than falsify our beliefs. The text suggests that one reason for the overconfidence phenomenon is that people search for confirming evidence rather than attempting to disconfirm their hunches.

…will have convinced themselves of a wrong rule—a mistake they could have avoided if they had tested their hunch by seeking to falsify it.

”…In science, and in everyday life, we should find most credible those ideas that not only are seemingly confirmed by available evidence, but also withstand attempts to falsify them.” (…is falsify to prove wrong?)


Module 8 Reasons for Unreason

The mixed picture of our intuitive self-knowledge … paralleled by a mixed picture of our rationality.

…four reasons for unreason—common ways in which people form or sustain false beliefs:
1. Our preconceptions control our interpretations.
2. We often are swayed more by anecdotes than by statistical facts.
3. We misperceive correlation and control.
4. Our beliefs can generate their own conclusions.

Our Preconceptions Control (?) Our Interpretations.
(I say… within the context of truth, our pre-judgments would lead to a particular direction.. to the extent that we can look and not be blinded by passion.)

But, We respond not to reality as it is but to reality as we construe it… (Is this so in explaining illness also? Is it all relative?)


… Both proponents and opponents of capital punishment readily accepted evidence that confirmed their belief but were sharply critical of disconfirming evidence. Showing the two sides an identical body of mixed evidence had therefore not lessened their disagreement but increased it.

The moral: (after exposure of visual cues and viewer’s inferences) There is a reality out there, but our minds actively construe it. Other people might construe reality differently and might, therefore, behave differently.

..the availability heuristic highlights a basic principle of social thinking: People are slow to deduce particular instances from a general truth, but they are remarkably quick to infer general truth from a vivid instance.

The availability heuristic explains why powerful anecdotes are often more compelling than statistical information and why perceived risk is therefore often badly out of joint with real risks…

Illusory Correlation….(Seeing) a correlation where none exists.
If we believe a correlation exists, we are more likely to notice and recall confirming instances. (thinking of a friend, and the friend calling… sometimes. Others the friend does not call)

Illusion of Control—the idea that chance events are subject to our influence…

(About) hospital patients and the elderly….
That enhancing their sense of control benefited their health and well-being. All this makes clear to me that perceived control is extremely important in successful functioning.’”

Our Beliefs Can Generate Their Own Confirmation.
Self-fulfilling prophecies… Even more startling—and controversial—are reports that teachers’ beliefs about their students similarly serve as self-fulfilling prophesies.

Do Teacher Expectations Affect Student Performance?
Teachers think well of students who do well.

Low expectations do not doom a capable child, nor do high expectations magically transform a slow learner into a valedictorian. Human nature is not so pliable.
(but) …
High expectations do seem to influence low achievers, for whom a teacher’s positive attitude may be a hope-giving breath of fresh air.


Do We Get What We Expect From Others?

… to some extent… Love helps create its presumed reality.
…once formed, erroneous beliefs about the social world can induce others to confirm those beliefs, a form of self-fulfilling prophesy called behavioral confirmation.

… Tell children they are hard-working and kind (rather than lazy and mean), and they may live up to their labels.

These experiments help us understand how social beliefs, such as stereotypes about people with disabilities or about people of a particular race or sex, may be self-confirming. We help construct our own social realities. How others treat us reflects how we and others have treated them.


Module 9 Behavior and Belief

The text suggests that an attitude—one’s favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction toward something or someone—may be exhibited in beliefs, feelings, or intended behavior. Thus when assessing attitudes, we tap one of the following dimensions: affect (feelings), behavior (intention), or cognition (thoughts). (From Teacher’s manual)


Attitude Functions
Recent research reflects renewed interest in the psychological functions of attitudes, an issue that was first popular more than 30 years ago. Katz (1960) suggested that attitudes serve (1) a knowledge function by helping us organize and structure our environment, (2) an instrumental function in helping us maximize rewards and minimize punishments, (3) an ego-defensive function by helping us deal with internal conflicts and defend against anxiety, and (4) a value-expressive function in helping us express ideals that are important to our self-concept.
(From Teacher’s manual)

(The virtues of experiential teaching/learning) : Action stimulates thinking; experiencing phenomena first hand heightens understanding; active cognitive processing of concepts increases retention. (From Teacher’s manual)


Herek argued that the AFI can be readily reworded to assess the motivational basis for almost any attitude . (From Teacher’s manual)


Which comes first, belief or behavior? Inner attitude or outer action? Character or conduct? What is the relationship between who we are (on the inside) and what we do (on the outside)? (I think, therefore I am!)

Underlying our teaching, preaching, and counseling is the assumption that private beliefs determine public behavior: If we want to alter people’s actions, we therefore need to change their hearts and minds.

Do Attitudes Influence Behavior?
Attitudes are beliefs and feelings that can influence our reactions.

… our attitudes do influence our actions in some circumstances:
• When external influences on our words and actions are minimal.
• When the attitude is specific to the behavior
• When we are conscious of our attitudes
(energy follows thought)

…. An attitude will influence our behavior if other influences are minimal, if the attitude specifically relates to the behavior, and if the attitude is potent, perhaps because something brings it to mind. Under these conditions, we will stand up for what we believe.

Does Behavior Influence Attitudes?
… we are likely not only to think ourselves into a way of acting but also to act ourselves into a way of thinking. Many streams of evidence confirm that attitudes follow behavior.

Role-Playing
The word role is borrowed from the theater and, as in the theater, refers to actions expected of those who occupy a particular social position.

(Discussion of Zimbardo’s research of prisons and guards… institutionalization—to enforce rules) … a growing confusion between reality and illusion, between role-playing and self-identity…

Take on a new role--… and it may shape your attitudes. (..so roles entail incorporating beliefs???)

Saying Becomes Believing
… we are prone to adjust our message to our listeners, and, having done so to believe the altered message… (i.e., giving professional/personal references)


The Foot-In-The-Door Phenomenon

…that when people commit themselves to public behavior and perceive these acts to be their own doing, they come to believe more strongly in what they have done. (e.x., having the customer rather than the salesperson, fill out the agreement. Having written it themselves, people usually live up to their commitment.


Evil Acts And Attitudes
…people would justify an action especially when coaxed into it, not coerced. When we agree to a deed voluntarily, we take more responsibility for it..

Actions and attitudes feed one another, sometimes to the point of moral numbness. The more one harms another and adjusts one’s attitudes, the easier harm-doing becomes. Conscience mutates.

So, they internalized the conscientious act if the deterrent was strong enough to elicit the desired behavior yet mild enough to leave them with a sense of choice. Moral action, especially when chosen rather than coerced, affects moral thinking.

Interracial Behavior And Racial Attitudes
If moral action feeds moral attitudes, will positively interracial behavior reduce racial prejudice—much as mandatory seatbelt use has produced more favorable seat belt attitudes? …. If we wait for the heart to change—through preaching and teaching—we will wait a long time for racial justice. But if we legislate moral action, we can, under the right conditions, indirectly affect heartfelt attitudes.

… that positive behavior toward someone fosters liking for that person. … If you wish to love someone more, act as if you do.

…. Faith and love are alike—if we keep them to ourselves, they shrivel. If we enact and express them, they grow.

Why Does Behavior Affect Attitudes?

Cognitive dissonance theory… proposes that we feel tension (“dissonance”) when tow simultaneously accessible thoughts or beliefs (“cognitions”) are psychologically inconsistent—as when we decide to say or do something we have mixed feelings about. Festinger argued that to reduce this unpleasant arousal, we often adjust our thinking.

So if we can persuade others to adopt a new attitude, their behavior should change accordingly; that’s common sense. Or if we can induce people to behave differently, their attitude should change (that’s the self-persuasion effect we have been reviewing).

Cognitive dissonance theory assumes that our need to maintain a consistent and positive self-image motivates us to adopt attitudes that justify our actions. Assuming no such motive, self-perception theory says that when our attitudes are unclear to us, we observe our behaviors and then infer our attitudes from them.

How do I know what I think until I hear what I say or see what I do?
Module 10 Clinical Intuition

..Let’s see why alerting mental health workers to how people form impressions (and misimpressions) might help avert serious misjudgments. (consequences?)

Illusory Correlations
If the students or clinicians expected a particular association they generally perceived it, regardless of whether the data were supportive.

Believing that a relationship existed between two things, they were more likely to notice confirming instances. To believe is to see. (Of course!)

Self-Confirming Diagnoses
… (a problem with clinical judgment) is that people might also supply information that fulfills clinicians’ expectations.

…found that people often test for a trait by looking for information that confirms it.

Implications

Professional clinicians are “vulnerable to insidious errors and biases,” … They:
• Are frequently the victims of illusory correlation;
• Are too readily convinced of their own after-the-fact analyses;
• Often fail to appreciate that erroneous diagnoses can de self-confirming; and
• Often overestimate the predictive powers of their clinical intuition.

The implications for mental health workers are more easily stated than practiced: Be mindful that clients’ verbal agreements with what you say does not prove its validity. Beware of the tendency to see relationships that you expect to see or that are supported by striking examples readily available in your memory. Rely on your notes more than your memory. Recognize that hindsight is seductive: It can lead you to feel overconfident and sometimes to judge yourself too harshly for not having foreseen outcomes. Guard against the tendency to ask questions that assume your preconceptions are correct; consider opposing ideas and test them, too (Garb, 1994).

Propositions that imply observable results are best evaluated by systematic observation and experiment--- we need inventive genius, or we may test only trivialities. …
Science always involves an interplay between intuition and rigorous test, between creative hunch and skepticism.

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Definitions 

ok, and as a guide says about multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary:

what, interdisciplanary and multi?
-i think it's the same thing... one is reaching across to other disciplines
-you think?... No!
-ok, so what is the difference
- then why do you need a different word for it?
- multi means many...inter means between
- or even disciplines for that matter
- so one is thinking of the numbers, the other is thinking of the relations
- kindda
- but ultimately a different take on the same thing, that is an approach not limited to one field or theory... explaining phenomena accross or between disciplines
- kindda...
- inter = between
- but then you add.... "exactly!"
-it's merely a question of the latin, multi means many
- and puff.... my order goes off to the air...
- inter means between
-"exactly"
-so are you thinking of an approach in terms of how many disciplines you are using
...as in more than one ... or are you thinking in terms of bridging areas between disciplines for one problem

- I think there is really no pure discipline
-but it works out the same
-does it?
- the exact difference is whether you're stressing the plurality of your approach... or the connectedness of your approach
- (I don't think so...look at you with economics and english...)
- like saying is this slice of the orange different from the next one?...we called this one a slice and the other one a segment... but it tastes the same
-or between oranges and pears..

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domingo, abril 24, 2005

It's a good thing... 

that this is not a language class.... we had enough challenge with words.

Like "what exactly" is the difference between interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary? (Reminds me of my searching for understanding of what the difference is between a dilemma and a predicament.)

What a class! I am excited with meeting such a nice group of women who are invested in their lives with the understanding that education will improve their experience. How interesting the process of my meeting "strangers" and in 5 hours being able to reach some of them in a more than superficial fashion.

Yes, it was interesting, challenging and hopefully a significant experience for everyone. How can I start to describe that first day?

Read quite a bit in preparation for the class.... and did not pay much attention to the fact that I had to get dressed and ready to go... oblivious of the rain, colder weather.... oh boy, what to wear!!!! Yes, I managed to look presentable … the purple sweeter saved me. Although it is spring and fluctuations in temperature here in Amherst are quite dramatic. Can you believe it that it was warmer here last week than what it was in Puerto Rico?

Arrived at the faculty mailboxes to figure out the system there. Oh good, the copies where there and some of the forms about rooster and lists regarding the student’s desires to carpool (???) and contact information. Got to the classroom and thought to myself… good thing that it is early enough… I can move the tables and chairs around to make a circle…. I keep insisting on the circle. I really wanted to go to the brownbag lunch in which the new director for the Saturday program was going to be available to greet people… but no, not enough time.

So the group started to trickle in, and I had not eaten my lunch, nor had finished arranging all the handouts… what a mess of paper. I did manage to install YM in the PC. What an opportunity!!!! YM was available and so was Learning Times…. When I opened my office at Learning Times I noticed that the archives of the blended sessions and all other activities where not there… WHAT!!!!!! I swallowed deep and calmed myself… what is going on?

A few more minutes to start, the room is filling up…. Welcome, I would say to those entering… and attempted eye contact … and started passing out the syllabus, and other papers to be distributed!

Social Psychology and I am Dr. Karen Garcia…. Used the board a lot… wished I had taken notes I thought…. Maybe I can use the blog as the board and save the scribbles that way… hummmm to techie I guess.

Worked on definitions a lot… operational definitions paralleling education to psychology, looking at the trends in history of systems…. The scientific method, learning outcomes, objectives, goals and syllabuses where discussed, specially since the paper requires the APA format. Yes, a lot of questions about requirements and about how we are going to achieve the requirements… how in the world are there going to be 4 presentations for each student (4x19=76) in 25 hours? Very short ones…. What else? Omg….

Yes yes, grades…. And excellence…. How can we all achieve excellence? I gave each a 3x5 card in which to write their contact information and answers to questions coming up through out the class…. Like… are you going for “it”? (for the A?) and asking them to define what “it” is…. interesting to read the cards…. EVERYONE IS GOING FOR IT!!!! WOW

Reviewing again Doernyei, Z. Motivational Strategies I can see how I fell short at directing the communication at goals. We did focus on the grades and excellence, and that was clear, however the flow of the class went into setting up the structure of the class as it went along, instead of setting a rigid structure… which is fine by me. I liked having the image of a dance and following the beat of the rhythm. We are an orchestra and there are plenty of parallels with the theory… so the metacognition of observing while behaving was understood and practiced by those participating in the discussion. Yet, in the motivational framework goal orientation seems to be more important that what I can see at the moment. What “exactly” is Doernyei aiming at… I wonder? Generally, his framework seems valid….

It is interesting to address issues of whether self efficacy and optimism preclude success or if success is required for competence. The recursiveness of life was explained in issues of the like of what came first, the chicken or the egg? The nature vs, nurture argument, and the influence of fate and the will in one’s life. Yes, I also mentioned that psychology is an offshoot of philosophy, and of course, the power imbalances in theory building where also acknowledged. Ahh, so much more. We spoke about self-concept and filled a scale on the interdependent – independent score we each had. And after a break we came back to the topic focusing instead on introductions. That was a great moment to hear everyone’s name and choice of information to give us. Most being mothers, some of 6 children, two, on with one on the way. Another finally marrying the father of her two children, and another one who will be happily divorced soon. One of them is a biker and another a retail person in my healthfood supermarket—of course she’s seen me there and I hoped I was not caught eating from the bulk section---- to which she immediately responded… “everyone does!!!”. I could sympathized with the one who was single and not anywhere close to be having children, nor getting married… and who kept three jobs. Later I found out in the index card communication that another one is a widow who re-married recently. Ahh, we celebrated another member’s beginning of her “faith-based” company…. And focused somewhat also on career achievements and goals as we went along in the circle.

What a neat group of women…. Really sharp! At that point I spoke last about what I heard, and when I wondered what would be a good summary, the one next to me said something to the like of--- “you just did”! Which sounded about right. I looked at the clock, and gave them my farewell 10 minutes early….. Turned the computer off, making sure tracks where erased, wiped the board and made sure to pick up all the multiple choice tests… multiple choice test!!!! Oh boy!

And off I went, turned in the commuter list to the registrar and walked in the rain to the car. Amazing how a comparable rain rendered the freeway by the condo in IslaVerde flooded to about two feet days before! And I changed lanes when I noticed I was hydroplaning!

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sábado, abril 23, 2005

Links to resources 



a webpage with examples

http://jonathan.mueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/crow/examples.htm

Ok, ready...

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viernes, abril 22, 2005

A lecture-- whose bright idea is that! 

A lecture, whose idea is this of a lecture--- monologue, transmission of information or is it a show about who knows and who does not. Not to even mention the deal about multiple choice tests… what is this? Whose classroom am I entering. I used to think there was academic freedom…. And of course, I enter into the realm of educational politics big time…. “yes Sir!” Of course, anything you say. Dandy!-



Chunks of information

Or is it learning objects what the proper concept is? The text:

Social Psychology, first class… five (5) modules. Let's see… (Hail Mary on the let's?)

Part One Introducing Social Psychology

Social Psychology as the study of connections… the scientific exploration of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.

This three aspects of thought, influence and relation allow for the contextual representation of the “person in environment” idea of culture, gender and self.

Let’s see how Myers approaches the subject.

Module 1 Doing Social Psychology
Self in relation the primary premise of female relations… (vs. the all beings in situations used in the quote about Sartre…. ) The difference is one of ultimate influence in the self-concept offered in feminist literature (Gilligan?)

Think, influence and relate…. Thought and affect.

Humans need to organize thought and theories achieve that. “A theory is an integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events”

Behavioral sciences comes to mind… defining science as a field of study allowing for discovery and prediction about behavior in this case. “Facts are agreed-upon statements about what we observe. Theories are ideas that summarize and explain facts.”

(ideas vs facts as in knowledge vs information)

Enter hypotheses…. “Theories not only summarize, they also imply testable predictions called hypotheses. Hypotheses serve several purposes. 1. to test a theory (falsifying it!) and 2. predictions give direction to research. 3. “the predictive feature of a good theory can also make them practical”.

“A good theory (1) effectively summarizes a wide range of observations; and (2) makes clear predictions that we can use to (a) confirm or modify the theory, (b) generate new exploration, and (c) suggest practical application.”

I say, a good theory is heuristic and parsimonious.

Operationalization… how do we approximate real life in the laboratory?

Correlation and causality.

Social-psychological research varying by location (field/laboratory) and by method (correlation-association of factors/experimental—cause and effect)

Experimental approaches: simulating experiences in the laboratory. Control of dependent and independent variables and random assignment for reduction of error.

Generalizations… the strength of the theory generated and supported from research.

Content and process…. “we can distinguish between the content of people’s thinking and acting (their attitudes, for example) and the process by which they think and act (for example, how attitudes affect actions and vice versa).”


Module 2 Did You Know It All Along?

We invoke common sense after we know the facts. “Events seem far more obvious and predictable in hind-sight.”

Hindsight bias also called the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon… “…conducive to arrogance—an overestimation of our own intellectual powers”.

(a result seems common sense after you know the result)

Part Two: Social Thinking

Module 3 Self-Concept: Who Am I?
Self-concept: answers to the question Who am I?

“Schemas are mental templates by which we organize our world”

Self reference effect: When information is relevant to our self-concepts, we process it quickly and remember it well”

“Thus, memories form around our primary interest: ourselves. When we think about something in relation to ourselves, we remember it better”.

…. “The more self-conscious we are, the more we believe this ‘ilusion of transparency’…” (everybody is looking….. reading this blog… jajaja)

Individualism…. Independent self… Identity is pretty much self-contained. .. Uprooted and placed in a foreign land, one’s identity—as a uniue individual with particular abilities, traits, values, and dreams—would remain intact.”

“Individualism flourishes when people experience affluence, mobility, urbanism, ans mass media…”

Collectivism.. interdependent self.

Take a look at this:

“Conservatives tend to be economic individualists (“don’t tax or regulate me”) and moral collectivists (“do legislate against immorality”). Liberals tend to be economic collectivists and moral individualists”.


Self-knowledge
Explaining behavior
Predicting Behavior
Predicting Feelings

We accommodate… we are resilient

The wisdom and delusions of Self-Analysis:

“When the causes of our behavior are conspicuous and the correct explanation fits our intuition, our self-perceptions will be accurate”

“The mental processes that control our social behavior are distinct from the mental processes through which we explain our behavior.” Gut feelings and dual attitudes.

“Errors in self-understanding limit the scientific usefulness of subjective personal reports” i.e., subjective biases.


Module 4 Self-Serving Bias

Self-Serving Bias: the tendency to perceive and present oneself favorably.

Attributing success to ability and effort, and failure to external factors… biases in allocating responsibility. Subjective behavior dimensions (such as ‘disciplined’) trigger greater self-serving bias than objective behavioral dimensions (such as punctual”).

Unrealistic Optimism

Optimism predisposes a positive approach to life.
Optimism definitely beats pessimism in promoting self-efficacy, health, and well-being. … Yet a dash of realism—“defensive pessimism’- can save us from the perils of unrealistic optimism. … Success in school and beyond requires enough optimism to sustain hoe and enough pessimism to motivate concern.”

False consensus effect- tendency to further enhance our self-images by overestimating or underestimating the extent to which others think and act as we do. … False consensus might occur because we generalize from a limited sample, which prominently includes ourselves… we’re more likely to associate with people who share our attitudes and behaviors and then to judge the world from the people we know.”

“One matters of ability or when we behave well or successfully, a false uniqueness effect more often occurs. … we may see our failings as relatively normal and our virtues as less commonplace than they are.”

Self-esteem motivation

Questing for self-knowledge, we’re eager to assess our competence… Questing for self-confirmation, we’re eager to verify our self-conceptions… Questing for self-affirmation, we’re especially motivated to enhance our self-image….

“Experiments confirm that a motivational engine powers our cognitive machinery…”

“Studies confirm that social rejection lowers our self-esteem, strengthening our eagerness for approval’

“… threats to self-esteem can provoke self-protective defensiveness.”

“Self serving bias and accompanying excuses help protect people from depression.. Depressed people’s self-appraisals are more accurate: sadder but wiser.”

“Belief in our superiority can also motivate us to achieve—creating a self-fulfilling prophecy—and can sustain a sense of hope in difficult times.”

Back to will and destiny.

**“True humility is more like self-forgetfulness than false modesty. It leaves people free to rejoice in their special talents and, with the same honesty, to recognize the talents of others.”**



Module 5 The Power of Positive Thinking

… underneath much human despair is an impoverished self-acceptance

Self-efficacy… the wisdom behind the power of positive thinking… People with strong feelings of self-efficacy are more persistent, less anxious and depressed, and more academically successful.

Your self-efficacy is how competent you feel to do something; your self-esteem is your sense of self-worth.

Locus of control: internal (you control your destiny)/external(forces control your fate)

Learned helplessness-- Depressed or oppressed people, … become passive because they believe their efforts have no effect.

(self efficacy) chief source is the experience of success. “To do one’s best and achieve is to feel more confident and empowered.”

“The bigger we dream, the more we might attain—and the more we risk falling short.”

Words, ideas now how do I convey this in an interesting and understandable manner?
Ok, there are handouts for most modules, group members will bring examples for concepts, there are multiple test items (which I have not really seen), and interactive opportunitieve through out.... how will I not interrupt myself for discussion and dialogue... and periods of breaks when individuals and or teams can venture outside the room to carry observations and/or reflections. Five hours, what a marathon!

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jueves, abril 21, 2005

Blogging the Social Psychology Class 

I am "urged" by Renata the great class blogger... to blog my experience of teaching a class. And since it has been a while since I go to a classroom in person... I will see how doing that will enhance the teaching experience.

For you the reader, I hope you leave your comments... yes, yes,.... I know it is hard to press a button and leave your words all over the place. But, it gets easier with time.

Hummm does it get easier? Immediately rules come to mind... like of course don't worry about the grammar and go wild with thought and words... but then even the fact that rules come to mind is of interest. Do we need rules in the classroom?


Rules in the classroom.
Of course by implication of its need we assume that chaos is that.... unwanted. And in a Social Psychology class, which this will be, rules are created, forced upon, and emergent. I rather see the later.... an ongoing acknowledgement of emergent rules (or norms for a more specific term.

To talk about social processes while they are taking place is an interesting experience. However, as I read the textbook I face new terms used to convey all concepts. It is a little bit disconcerting and I hope that by reviewing another book by the same author I will be able to relieve that first hurdle.

So the texbook is becoming familiar, the syllabus was posted in the course's web envionment. The students are writing emails with questions about the requirements and ohhh boy.... here I am back after almost 6 weeks being away from my desk! ... where is my microphone?

Challenges posed by technology
Ok, this is not at Learning Times, I won't need a microphone. Actually, I was offered a fully wired classroom to carry on the class... I realized that in a Social Psychology class in vivo, we didn't need all the bell and whistles. Now I wonder what I will be missing. My realization was of my needing a space where we could seat in a circle and encounter each other... sort of cozyly rubbing elbows as we shared a learning process. Would that level of bodycontact be threatening... I wonder... You, know.... all this fuzz about proper physical distance and vice versa, how threatening touch could be. I guess that is another interesting social psychology topic... I wonder in which module it is included?

A student wrote to me asking how the resources included in the cd which is included in the book become accessible to her since she bought a second hand book! Now, that is a first for me!!!! An interesting dylemma. She found the resources blocked by the password set by the original owner. I told her to go back to the seller and find out what to do. It seems to me that this issue becomes a political and obviously economic issue. Of course access should be given to those who buy the book used!

So other than the setting up and finalizing details about how I will use the time in each of the 6 five hour long classes, I need to review what I think about learning, collaborative classrooms, chaos, anarchism, creativity, social construction of reality, and the like.... all social psychology terms .

Identifying a framework

So in honor of my mentor, I will review if Doernyei's Motivational Strategies would be applicable in the non-language classroom. How about that for a start?

So for the sake of convenience, I will copy the categories here... and lead you to Renata's blog for your consultation of her unique work.

Creating the Basic Motivational Conditions
1 Demonstrate and talk about your own enthusiasm for the course material and how it affects you personally.
2 Take the students learning very seriously.
3 Develop a personal relationship with your students.
4 Develop a collaborative relationship with the students'parents.
5 Create a pleasant and supportive atmosphere in the classroom.
6 Promote the development of group cohesiveness.
7 Formulate the norms explicitly, and have them discussed and accepted by the learners.
8 Have the group norms consistently observed.


Generating Initial Motivation
9 Promote the learners' language related valuse by presenting peer role models.
10 Raise the learners' intrinsic interest in the L2 learning process
11 Promote 'integrative values by encouraging a positive and open-minded disposition towards the L2 and its speakers
12 Promote the students' awareness of the instrumental values associated with the knowledge of an L2
13 Increase the students' expectancy of success in particular tasks and learning in general.
14 Increase the students' goal-orientedness by formulating explicit class goals accepted by them.
15 Make the curriculum and the teaching materials relevant to the students.
16 Help to create realistic learner beliefs.


Maintaining and Protecting Motivation
17 Make learning more stimulating and enjoyable by breaking the monotony of classroom events.
18 Make learning stimulating and enjoyable for the learners by increasing the attractiveness of the task.
19 Make learning stimulating and enjoyable for the learners by enlisting them as active task participants.
20 Present and administer tasks in a motivating way.
21 Use goal-setting methods in your classroom.
22 Use contracting methods with your students to formalise their goal commitment.
23 Provide learners with regular experience of success.
24 Build your learners confidence by providing regular encouragement.
25 Help dimish language anxiety by removing or reducing the anxiety-provoking elements in the learning environment.
26 Build your learners confidence in their learning abilities by teaching them various learner strategies.
27 Allow learners to maintain a positive social image while engaged in the learning tasks.
28 Increase student motivation by promoting cooperation among the learners.
29 Increase student motivation by actively promoting learner autonomy.
30 Increase the student' self-motivating capacity.


Encouraging Positive Self-Evaluation
31 Promote effort attributions in your students.
32 Provide students with positive information feedback.
33 Increase learner satisfaction.(celebrate achievements, display work)
34 Offer rewards in a motivational manner.
35 Use grades in a motivating manner, reducing as much as possible their demotivating impact.

Taken from Grankageva who took it from Doernyei, Z. Motivational Strategies in the Language Classroom. Cambridge University Press 2001

Of course I could start discussing how these categories are applicable to the Social Psychology Classroom and in general, how does motivation exert facilitative forces in the learning process.

To do

Will look at these categories to see how they could be link to the setting of norms in the classroom. Also explore if this is the framework that I want to use as a foundation to structure my observations.

more to come....

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sábado, abril 02, 2005

Activist Friends: 

----- Original Message -----

To:
Sent: Friday, April 01, 2005 9:26 AM
Subject: Saving the dugongs (JEM list)

GREENPEACE: HELP US SAVE DUGONGS

(From: TERAO Terumi )

        It is 8:30am and I, along with 30 activists, have been sitting on drilling platform #4 for an hour and a half. We can see workers gathering at the US Marine Corp base at Henoko, Okinawa. They are about to come out and try to drill the first of 64 holes into the life-sustaining coral reef. But for the 300th consecutive day, we are not going to let them.
        Though this is my tenth day on the platform, I still feel like a rookie. Many of the people have been occupying one of the four platforms since the protests moved to the platforms in November. That was when local residents decided that if they did not directly intervene, the reef would be destroyed forever, crushed under the weight of an entire American air base.
        With me is an 84-year-old local man who said, "We know for sure, that building the airbase is not the right thing to do. There are plenty of sea creatures that are supporting our life here. Once the base is built, there will be no future for our children."
        Although the agreement to construct the airbase was signed in 1996, local opposition has been so strong that construction was not started until late 2004. Approval for the base was forced through despite local people voting overwhelmingly to reject the base in 1997.
        We have joined the local protesters in their effort to save Henoko Bay and protect the dugongs' fragile ecosystem. Our ship, Rainbow Warrior, is in Okinawa to shine a spotlight on these courageous activists, who are determined to protect their coral reef, and the creatures that depend on it.
        But we cannot save the dugong alone - we need you to take action, and support these courageous local people by sending a green ribbon to the Rainbow Warrior.

http://www.greenpeace.or.jp/cyberaction/okinawa/action_en_html
=============================

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