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viernes, abril 22, 2005

A lecture-- whose bright idea is that! 

A lecture, whose idea is this of a lecture--- monologue, transmission of information or is it a show about who knows and who does not. Not to even mention the deal about multiple choice tests… what is this? Whose classroom am I entering. I used to think there was academic freedom…. And of course, I enter into the realm of educational politics big time…. “yes Sir!” Of course, anything you say. Dandy!-



Chunks of information

Or is it learning objects what the proper concept is? The text:

Social Psychology, first class… five (5) modules. Let's see… (Hail Mary on the let's?)

Part One Introducing Social Psychology

Social Psychology as the study of connections… the scientific exploration of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.

This three aspects of thought, influence and relation allow for the contextual representation of the “person in environment” idea of culture, gender and self.

Let’s see how Myers approaches the subject.

Module 1 Doing Social Psychology
Self in relation the primary premise of female relations… (vs. the all beings in situations used in the quote about Sartre…. ) The difference is one of ultimate influence in the self-concept offered in feminist literature (Gilligan?)

Think, influence and relate…. Thought and affect.

Humans need to organize thought and theories achieve that. “A theory is an integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events”

Behavioral sciences comes to mind… defining science as a field of study allowing for discovery and prediction about behavior in this case. “Facts are agreed-upon statements about what we observe. Theories are ideas that summarize and explain facts.”

(ideas vs facts as in knowledge vs information)

Enter hypotheses…. “Theories not only summarize, they also imply testable predictions called hypotheses. Hypotheses serve several purposes. 1. to test a theory (falsifying it!) and 2. predictions give direction to research. 3. “the predictive feature of a good theory can also make them practical”.

“A good theory (1) effectively summarizes a wide range of observations; and (2) makes clear predictions that we can use to (a) confirm or modify the theory, (b) generate new exploration, and (c) suggest practical application.”

I say, a good theory is heuristic and parsimonious.

Operationalization… how do we approximate real life in the laboratory?

Correlation and causality.

Social-psychological research varying by location (field/laboratory) and by method (correlation-association of factors/experimental—cause and effect)

Experimental approaches: simulating experiences in the laboratory. Control of dependent and independent variables and random assignment for reduction of error.

Generalizations… the strength of the theory generated and supported from research.

Content and process…. “we can distinguish between the content of people’s thinking and acting (their attitudes, for example) and the process by which they think and act (for example, how attitudes affect actions and vice versa).”


Module 2 Did You Know It All Along?

We invoke common sense after we know the facts. “Events seem far more obvious and predictable in hind-sight.”

Hindsight bias also called the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon… “…conducive to arrogance—an overestimation of our own intellectual powers”.

(a result seems common sense after you know the result)

Part Two: Social Thinking

Module 3 Self-Concept: Who Am I?
Self-concept: answers to the question Who am I?

“Schemas are mental templates by which we organize our world”

Self reference effect: When information is relevant to our self-concepts, we process it quickly and remember it well”

“Thus, memories form around our primary interest: ourselves. When we think about something in relation to ourselves, we remember it better”.

…. “The more self-conscious we are, the more we believe this ‘ilusion of transparency’…” (everybody is looking….. reading this blog… jajaja)

Individualism…. Independent self… Identity is pretty much self-contained. .. Uprooted and placed in a foreign land, one’s identity—as a uniue individual with particular abilities, traits, values, and dreams—would remain intact.”

“Individualism flourishes when people experience affluence, mobility, urbanism, ans mass media…”

Collectivism.. interdependent self.

Take a look at this:

“Conservatives tend to be economic individualists (“don’t tax or regulate me”) and moral collectivists (“do legislate against immorality”). Liberals tend to be economic collectivists and moral individualists”.


Self-knowledge
Explaining behavior
Predicting Behavior
Predicting Feelings

We accommodate… we are resilient

The wisdom and delusions of Self-Analysis:

“When the causes of our behavior are conspicuous and the correct explanation fits our intuition, our self-perceptions will be accurate”

“The mental processes that control our social behavior are distinct from the mental processes through which we explain our behavior.” Gut feelings and dual attitudes.

“Errors in self-understanding limit the scientific usefulness of subjective personal reports” i.e., subjective biases.


Module 4 Self-Serving Bias

Self-Serving Bias: the tendency to perceive and present oneself favorably.

Attributing success to ability and effort, and failure to external factors… biases in allocating responsibility. Subjective behavior dimensions (such as ‘disciplined’) trigger greater self-serving bias than objective behavioral dimensions (such as punctual”).

Unrealistic Optimism

Optimism predisposes a positive approach to life.
Optimism definitely beats pessimism in promoting self-efficacy, health, and well-being. … Yet a dash of realism—“defensive pessimism’- can save us from the perils of unrealistic optimism. … Success in school and beyond requires enough optimism to sustain hoe and enough pessimism to motivate concern.”

False consensus effect- tendency to further enhance our self-images by overestimating or underestimating the extent to which others think and act as we do. … False consensus might occur because we generalize from a limited sample, which prominently includes ourselves… we’re more likely to associate with people who share our attitudes and behaviors and then to judge the world from the people we know.”

“One matters of ability or when we behave well or successfully, a false uniqueness effect more often occurs. … we may see our failings as relatively normal and our virtues as less commonplace than they are.”

Self-esteem motivation

Questing for self-knowledge, we’re eager to assess our competence… Questing for self-confirmation, we’re eager to verify our self-conceptions… Questing for self-affirmation, we’re especially motivated to enhance our self-image….

“Experiments confirm that a motivational engine powers our cognitive machinery…”

“Studies confirm that social rejection lowers our self-esteem, strengthening our eagerness for approval’

“… threats to self-esteem can provoke self-protective defensiveness.”

“Self serving bias and accompanying excuses help protect people from depression.. Depressed people’s self-appraisals are more accurate: sadder but wiser.”

“Belief in our superiority can also motivate us to achieve—creating a self-fulfilling prophecy—and can sustain a sense of hope in difficult times.”

Back to will and destiny.

**“True humility is more like self-forgetfulness than false modesty. It leaves people free to rejoice in their special talents and, with the same honesty, to recognize the talents of others.”**



Module 5 The Power of Positive Thinking

… underneath much human despair is an impoverished self-acceptance

Self-efficacy… the wisdom behind the power of positive thinking… People with strong feelings of self-efficacy are more persistent, less anxious and depressed, and more academically successful.

Your self-efficacy is how competent you feel to do something; your self-esteem is your sense of self-worth.

Locus of control: internal (you control your destiny)/external(forces control your fate)

Learned helplessness-- Depressed or oppressed people, … become passive because they believe their efforts have no effect.

(self efficacy) chief source is the experience of success. “To do one’s best and achieve is to feel more confident and empowered.”

“The bigger we dream, the more we might attain—and the more we risk falling short.”

Words, ideas now how do I convey this in an interesting and understandable manner?
Ok, there are handouts for most modules, group members will bring examples for concepts, there are multiple test items (which I have not really seen), and interactive opportunitieve through out.... how will I not interrupt myself for discussion and dialogue... and periods of breaks when individuals and or teams can venture outside the room to carry observations and/or reflections. Five hours, what a marathon!

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